Contents

- 1 How do you check for vanishing gradient in keras?
- 2 How do you know if a gradient is exploding?
- 3 What is the vanishing exploding gradient problem?
- 4 Does ReLU have vanishing gradient?
- 5 What is the vanishing exploding gradient issue?
- 6 Which is better LSTM or GRU?
- 7 How does d uring gradient descent work in keras?
- 8 Why are small gradients more difficult to train?

## How do you check for vanishing gradient in keras?

To check for vanishing / exploding gradients, pay attention the gradients distribution and absolute values in the layer of interest (“Distributions” tab): If the distribution is highly peaked and concentrated around 0, the gradients are probably vanishing.

## How do you know if a gradient is exploding?

How do You Know if You Have Exploding Gradients?

- The model is unable to get traction on your training data (e.g. poor loss).
- The model is unstable, resulting in large changes in loss from update to update.
- The model loss goes to NaN during training.

**How do you deal with an exploding and vanishing gradient?**

Gradient Clipping Another popular technique to mitigate the exploding gradients problem is to clip the gradients during backpropagation so that they never exceed some threshold. This is called Gradient Clipping. This optimizer will clip every component of the gradient vector to a value between –1.0 and 1.0.

**How do you avoid exploding gradients in keras?**

Exploding gradients can be avoided in general by careful configuration of the network model, such as choice of small learning rate, scaled target variables, and a standard loss function. Nevertheless, exploding gradients may still be an issue with recurrent networks with a large number of input time steps.

### What is the vanishing exploding gradient problem?

In a network of n hidden layers, n derivatives will be multiplied together. If the derivatives are large then the gradient will increase exponentially as we propagate down the model until they eventually explode, and this is what we call the problem of exploding gradient.

### Does ReLU have vanishing gradient?

ReLU has gradient 1 when input > 0, and zero otherwise. Thus, multiplying a bunch of ReLU derivatives together in the backprop equations has the nice property of being either 1 or 0. There is no “vanishing” or “diminishing” of the gradient.

**How do LSTMs deal with vanishing and exploding gradients?**

LSTMs solve the problem using a unique additive gradient structure that includes direct access to the forget gate’s activations, enabling the network to encourage desired behaviour from the error gradient using frequent gates update on every time step of the learning process.

**What are vanishing and exploding gradient problems?**

In a network of n hidden layers, n derivatives will be multiplied together. If the derivatives are large then the gradient will increase exponentially as we propagate down the model until they eventually explode, and this is what we call the problem of exploding gradient .

#### What is the vanishing exploding gradient issue?

#### Which is better LSTM or GRU?

The key difference between GRU and LSTM is that GRU’s bag has two gates that are reset and update while LSTM has three gates that are input, output, forget. GRU is less complex than LSTM because it has less number of gates. If the dataset is small then GRU is preferred otherwise LSTM for the larger dataset.

**What causes an exploding gradient in keras training?**

As the name ‘exploding’ implies, during training, it causes the model’s parameter to grow so large so that even a very tiny amount change in the input can cause a great update in later layers’ output. We can spot the issue by simply observing the value of layer weights. Sometimes it overflows and the value becomes NaN.

**How are exploding gradients different from vanishing gradients?**

Here is an unrolled recurrent network showing the idea. Compared to vanishing gradients, exploding gradients is more easy to realize. As the name ‘exploding’ implies, during training, it causes the model’s parameter to grow so large so that even a very tiny amount change in the input can cause a great update in later layers’ output.

## How does d uring gradient descent work in keras?

D uring gradient descent, as it backprop from the final layer back to the first layer, gradient values are multiplied by the weight matrix on each step, and thus the gradient can decrease exponentially quickly to zero. As a result, the network cannot learn the parameters effectively.

## Why are small gradients more difficult to train?

This problem of very small gradients is known as the vanishing gradient problem. The vanishing gradient problem particularly affects the lower layers of the network and makes them more difficult to train. Similarly, if the gradient associated with a weight becomes extremely large the updates to the weight will also be large.