Contents

- 1 What are the limitations on the use of Monte Carlo methods for reinforcement learning?
- 2 What is action value function in reinforcement learning?
- 3 Is Monte Carlo on policy?
- 4 What is the difference between value function and action value function?
- 5 What are the major issues with Q learning?
- 6 What is Monte Carlo control?
- 7 Can a Monte Carlo simulation be used for a risk assessment?
- 8 What is the present value of a Monte Carlo award?

## What are the limitations on the use of Monte Carlo methods for reinforcement learning?

But it has below limitations as well:

- MC must wait until end of episode before return is known.
- MC has high variance.
- MC can only learn from complete sequences.
- MC only works for episodic (terminating) environments.

**What is reinforcement learning define policy evaluation using Monte Carlo algorithm?**

The Monte Carlo method for reinforcement learning learns directly from episodes of experience without any prior knowledge of MDP transitions. Here, the random component is the return or reward. The reason is that the episode has to terminate before we can calculate any returns.

### What is action value function in reinforcement learning?

The action-value of a state is the expected return if the agent chooses action a according to a policy π. Value functions are critical to Reinforcement Learning. They allow an agent to query the quality of his current situation rather than waiting for the long-term result.

**Is Monte Carlo a learning reinforcement?**

The Monte-Carlo reinforcement learning algorithm overcomes the difficulty of strategy estimation caused by an unknown model. However, a disadvantage is that the strategy can only be updated after the whole episode. In other words, the Monte Carlo method does not make full use of the MDP learning task structure.

#### Is Monte Carlo on policy?

Monte Carlo follows the policy and ends up with different samples for each episode. The underlining model is approximated by running many episodes and averaging over all samples. Dynamic Programming, on the other hand, would consider all future actions and future states from every state.

**What is RL action?**

Actions: Actions are the Agent’s methods which allow it to interact and change its environment, and thus transfer between states. Every action performed by the Agent yields a reward from the environment. The decision of which action to choose is made by the policy.

## What is the difference between value function and action value function?

That means summarised, the state-value-function returns the value of achieving a certain state and the action-value-function returns the value for choosing an action in a state, whereas a value means the total amount of rewards until reaching terminal state.

**What is exploring starts in Monte Carlo?**

Exploring starts: Every state-action pair has a non-zero probability of being the starting pair! Or use ε-soft policies (as explained later)! Converges asymptotically if every state-action pair is visited! Monte Carlo Control!

### What are the major issues with Q learning?

A major limitation of Q-learning is that it is only works in environments with discrete and finite state and action spaces.

**What is the difference between TD 0 and Monte Carlo Value function update equations?**

MC uses accurate return Gt to update value, while TD uses the Bellman Optimality Equation to estimate value, and then updates the estimated value with the target value.

#### What is Monte Carlo control?

Figure 5.4: Monte Carlo ES: A Monte Carlo control algorithm assuming exploring starts. In Monte Carlo ES, all the returns for each state-action pair are accumulated and averaged, irrespective of what policy was in force when they were observed.

**How to learn the Monte Carlo state value function?**

We begin by considering Monte Carlo methods for learning the state-value function for a given policy. Recall that the value of a state is the expected return–expected cumulative future discounted reward–starting from that state.

## Can a Monte Carlo simulation be used for a risk assessment?

Because of these limitations, Region III does not recommend Monte Carlo simulation as the sole, or even primary, risk assessment method. Nevertheless, Monte Carlo simulation is clearly superior to the qualitative procedures currently used to analyze uncertainty and variability.

**Which is an important fact about Monte Carlo methods?**

An important fact about Monte Carlo methods is that the estimates for each state are independent. The estimate for one state does not build upon the estimate of any other state, as is the case in DP. In other words, Monte Carlo methods do not “bootstrap” as we described it in the previous chapter.

### What is the present value of a Monte Carlo award?

The Monte Carlo value is the present value of the average payout: $27.73. This next section describes how variations in several key factors impact the Monte Carlo values of awards. The factors explored are volatility, correlation (for RTSR awards), and leverage (payout factors) in award design.