Contents

- 1 What is scale invariant in machine learning?
- 2 What are the limitations of gradient descent?
- 3 What is meant by scale invariant?
- 4 Why are CNNs not scale invariant?
- 5 Why Adam Optimizer is best?
- 6 How does Adam Optimizer work?
- 7 How does gradient descent affect the learning step?
- 8 How is gradient descent used in iterative optimization?

## What is scale invariant in machine learning?

A machine learning method is ‘scale invariant’ if rescaling any (or all) of the features—i.e. multiplying each column by a different nonzero number—does not change its predictions. L_0 regression is scale invariant; the feature is in or out of the model, so the size doesn’t matter. …

## What are the limitations of gradient descent?

Disadvantages of Batch Gradient Descent

- Perform redundant computation for the same training example for large datasets.
- Can be very slow and intractable as large datasets may not fit in the memory.
- As we take the entire dataset for computation we can update the weights of the model for the new data.

**Is Adam scale invariant?**

One of the features of Adam is that it is scale invariant, if we scale the objective function by a scale of k , then at line 11 the mean changes to k *previous_val and the denominator changes to k *previous_val, which in turn cancels out.

**Is gradient descent an approximation?**

The gradient step moves the point downwards along the linear approximation of the function. The Newton step moves the point to the minimum of the parabola, which is used to approximate the function. Gradient Descent always converges after over 100 iterations from all initial starting points.

### What is meant by scale invariant?

Definition. Scale invariance is a term used in mathematics, economics and physics and is a feature of an object that does not change if all scales in the object are multiplied by a common factor.

### Why are CNNs not scale invariant?

If you scale the eyes the pattern black pixel- empty pixel – black pixel is lost. If this “eyes” pattern was learnt in the small version it will not be detected in a bigger version. This pattern is not scale invariant.

**What is the advantage of gradient descent?**

Some advantages of batch gradient descent are its computational efficient, it produces a stable error gradient and a stable convergence. Some disadvantages are the stable error gradient can sometimes result in a state of convergence that isn’t the best the model can achieve.

**What is gradient descent used for?**

Gradient descent is an optimization algorithm used to find the values of parameters (coefficients) of a function (f) that minimizes a cost function (cost).

#### Why Adam Optimizer is best?

Adam combines the best properties of the AdaGrad and RMSProp algorithms to provide an optimization algorithm that can handle sparse gradients on noisy problems. Adam is relatively easy to configure where the default configuration parameters do well on most problems.

#### How does Adam Optimizer work?

Adam optimizer involves a combination of two gradient descent methodologies: Momentum: This algorithm is used to accelerate the gradient descent algorithm by taking into consideration the ‘exponentially weighted average’ of the gradients. Using averages makes the algorithm converge towards the minima in a faster pace.

**How do you know if gradient descent converges?**

Strongly convex f. In contrast, if we assume that f is strongly convex, we can show that gradient descent converges with rate O(ck) for 0 (x(k)) − f(x∗) ≤ ϵ can be achieved using only O(log(1/ϵ)) iterations. This rate is typically called “linear convergence.”

**How to create gradient descent algorithms in Excel?**

Gradient Descent Algorithm and Its Variants 1 Initialize weight w and bias b to any random numbers. 2 Pick a value for the learning rate α. The learning rate determines how big the step would be on each iteration. If α… 3 Make sure to scale the data if it’s on a very different scales. If we don’t scale the data, the level curves… More

## How does gradient descent affect the learning step?

Gradient descent is a first-order optimization algorithm, which means it doesn’t take into account the second derivatives of the cost function. However, the curvature of the function affects the size of each learning step.

## How is gradient descent used in iterative optimization?

Gradient descent is a first-order iterative optimization algorithm for finding a local minimum of a differentiable function. To find a local minimum of a function using gradient descent, we take steps proportional to the negative of the gradient (or approximate gradient) of the function at the current point.

**Why do you step in the opposite direction of the gradient?**

The idea is to take repeated steps in the opposite direction of the gradient (or approximate gradient) of the function at the current point, because this is the direction of steepest descent. Conversely, stepping in the direction of the gradient will lead to a local maximum of that function; the procedure is then known as gradient ascent.